PINDA! HAKI YA KUJITETEA NI HAKI YA MSINGI YA MWANADAMU

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18. Subject to the provisions of section 18a, a person is not criminally liable to an act done in the exercise of the right to self-defence or the defence of another or the defence of property in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

Mojawapo ya haki ambazo labda hatujazizungumza sana na hazieleweeki ni haki ya kujitetea (the right of self defence). Haki hii haijaleweka au haieleweki kwa wengi kwani inachanganywa na kuonekana ni uhalifu.

Mwanadamu anayo haki ya kulinda nafsi yake na mali yake kutoka kwenye dhulma yoyote ile.

Mara kwa mara haki hii tunaitumia kwa njia za sheria – kama kwenda mahakamani au kumkamata mwizi.

Lakini inakuwaje kama jambazi amevamia familia yako na kuitishia maisha na wewe una silaha? Je unaweza kutumia silaha kuitetea familia yako? Jibu ni ndiyo! Hiyo ni haki yako na ukifanya hivyo kwa kujitetea maisha yako na ya familia yako ni vigumu kwa mahakama kukuta una hatia isipokuwa kama inaonekana kwa mfano, umeweza kumweka jambazi chini ya ulinzi na kumnyang’anya silaha halafu kwa kisasi ukaamua kumuua! Hapo huwezi tena kujitetea ‘self-defense”.

Lakini inakuwaje kama wanaokushambulia ni maafisa wa vyombo vya usalama? Je maafisa wa vyombo vya usalama wakifuata agizo la Pinda wakakukufuza na kuanza kukupiga bila kujaribu kukukamata au kukuletea mashtaka au si kwa ajili ya kukuweka chini ya ulinzi unatakiwa kufanya nini?

Je, polisi au wana usalama wanaweza kuja nyumbani kwako na kukushambulia kwa vile wanakushuku wewe ni mkorofii kama walivyofanya Mtwara je wewe nyumbani kwako una haki ya kujitetea? Baadhi ya watu ambao nimewasoma toka jana wanaamini kuwa serikali inaweza kupiga wananchi wake na wananchi hawapaswi kujitetea! Kuna watu ambao ukiwasoma wanaamini kabisa kuwa polisi na vyombo vya usalama vina haki na uwezo wa kuja na kukuambia “wanachotaka” na wewe unatakiwa ufanye wanachotaka kwa sababu unatakiwa ‘kutii sheria bila shurti’!

Wapo kabisa ambao wanaamini kabisa kuwa Mkuu wa Polisi fulani anaweza kuja na nyota na mwenge wake na kukuambua “Chochote” na wewe unatakiwa ufanye tu kwa sababu yeye kasema!

Kwamba wanaamini wananchi hawatakiwi kuwabishia polisi, hawatakiwi kuwauliza na kwa hakika hawatakiwi kuwapinga! Je hili ni kweli? Je ni kweli polisi wana nguvu hiyo katika maisha ya watu wetu kiasi kwamba watu wetu wanatakiwa watii bila shurti!? Yaani, watii lolote, popote, kwa lolote na vyovyote kwa vile wameamriwa hivyo?

Mwanadamu siyo mnyama ambaye anaweza kusukumwa sukumwa au kunyanyaswa na watu wenye nguvu na madaraka. Mwanadamu ameumbwa na dhamira na utu wake. Wapo wanadamu kati yetu ambao hawajali kunyanyaswa alimradi wanaachwa na “amani”.

Wapo kati yetu ambao utu wao kwao ni chakula cha leo tu na ukiwapa chakula cha leo tu basi unaweza kuwafanyia lolote, popote, na kwa lolote! Naam, wapo kati yetu ambao hawawezi kuhoji serikali yao, hawawezi kuipinga, na kamwe hawatothubutu kulalamika kwa sababu wanaogopa au kuhofia kuonekana siyo watiifu. Hawa wakiambiwa ‘inama’ wanainama, ‘inuka’, ‘lala’ wanalala na wakiambiwa ‘lia’ wanalia kama wameona mzimu! Hawa hawana namna ya kuwasaidia kwani kila jamii inayo watu kama hao; watu ambao wanaabudu kwenye altare ya watawala wa zama zao!

Self Defence Section 18 of the Penal Code

18. Subject to the provisions of section 18a, a person is not criminally liable to an act done in the exercise of the right to self-defence or the defence of another or the defence of property in accordance with the provisions of this Code.

18A. (1) Subject to the provisions of this Code even person has the right—
(a) to defend himself or any other person against any unlawful act of assault or violence to the body; or

(b) to defend his own property or any property in this lawful possession, custody or under his care or the property of any other person against any unlawful act of seizure or destruction or violence.

(2) in this section, the expression “property of any other person” includes any property belonging to the Government or a public corporation or an employer or any property communally owned by members of the public as a co-operative society or a village, whether or not that village is registered under the Villages and Ujamaa Villages (Registration, Designation and Adminisration Act, 1975.

18B. —(1) In exercising the right of self -or in defence of another or defence of property, a person shall be entitled only to use such reasonable force as may be necessary for that defence.
(2) Every person shall be criminally liable for any offence resulting from excessive force used in self-defence or in defence of another or in defence of property.
(3) Any person who causes the death of another as the result of excessive force used in defence, shall be guilty of manslaughter.

18C. —(1) The right of self-defence or the defence of another or defence of property shall extend to a person who, in exercising that right, causes death or grievous harm to another and the person so acting, acts in good faith and With an honest belief based on reasonable grounds that his act is necessary for the preservation of his own life or limb or the life or limb of another or of property, in the circumstances where-

(a) the lawful act is of such a nature as may reasonably cause the apprehension that his own death or the death of another person could be the, consequence of that act; or

(b) the lawful act is of such a nature as may reasonably cause the apprehension that grievous harm to his own body or the body of another could be the consequence of that unlawful
act; or

(c) the unlawful act is with the intention of committing rape or defilement or an unnatural offence; or

(d) the unlawful act is with the intention of kidnapping or abducting; or

(e) the lawful act is burglary or robbery or arson or any offence which endangers life or property.

(2) If, in the exercise of a right of defence in accordance with this Code, the person exercising that right is in such a situation that he cannot effectively exercise that right without risk of harm to an innocent person or property, his right of defence extends to the running of that risk.

SEHEMU YA TAFSIRI NA MAELEZO YA SHERIA HII IMEFANYWA NA MWANAKIJIJI

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